Featured Post

Describe a Time You Had to Finish Domething Quickly IELTSCUECARDS-VINODSHARMAIELTS

Describe a time you had to finish something quickly Introduction. Effective time management cultivates success, yet the allure of last-minute preparation remains a familiar dance. The urgency sparks focus, pushing us to harness our abilities and culminate efforts swiftly. In those final moments, we unravel untapped potential to meet the demands of the ticking clock. - What it was. Here I am going to talk about my project submission which I completed in just two days. It was really a hard task for me. Normally I am a punctual person and I keep my academics up to date and don't miss any submission. This was a important project where I enrolled myself and forgot the deadline. - When it happened. It was the last semester of my college and we all were given projects to complete. We normally attend classes and are occupied withots of academic work. My professor assigned us a special project and told us to make a project on waste water management and treatment in u

Government and the authorities

                 

VOCABULARY

Trustworthy = capable of being trusted

In most countries, politicians are regarded as untrustworthy and possibly corrupt.


Paramount = of the greatest importance

It is paramount that we find a solution to the problem of Internet piracy.


Devious = extremely clever in a dishonest way

Online criminals today are devious, and use many different methods to deceive their victims.


Minutiae (pronounced ‘my-new-shy’) = small details

Nobody really understands the minutiae of the new tax code.


Grievance = an issue which makes people upset or angry for a long time

Some towns in the countryside have a grievance with central government because of land reform laws.


Sensitivity = being alert to the circumstances of a specific group of people

Teachers should show sensitivity to students who have language difficulties.


To commit an offence/a crime = to do it

The President committed murder when he arranged for his opponent to be assassinated.


Informants = people who tell the police useful information about criminals in their area

The police paid the informant for information about who organised the riots.



Evidence = material presented in court to prove that someone is guilty or innocent

The police had a lot of DNA evidence against her, but no witness statements.


A trial = the legal procedure of prosecuting someone for a crime

A murder trial can last for many weeks and cost millions of Euros to conduct.


Conviction rates = the percentage of accused people who are convicted of (= found to be guilty of) a crime

Conviction rates for burglary are low; only about 30% of trials result in a conviction.


A deterrent = something that makes people not want to do something (verb = to deter)

We have a guard dog as a deterrent against intruders at night. It deters people from coming into our garden.


Sentencing = the action of telling a convicted criminal what the punishment is

(Verb = to sentence)


Imprisonment = punishment by being in prison

He was sentenced to five years imprisonment for the armed robbery of a shop.


A fine = money paid as a punishment

The fine for speeding in my country is about 200 Euros.


Community service = punishment by doing manual work for the public

Her community service consisted of cleaning the town parks and sweeping litter in the streets.


Rehabilitation = the process of changing a criminal’s character so that he does not commit more crimes (verb = to rehabilitate someone)

Some prisons use music and drama to rehabilitate offenders. Others say there is no point in trying.


An offender = a person who commits an offence

The government should provide training for offenders in prison, so that they don’t turn to crime again when they leave.


Tendencies = inclinations due to your character (usually negative)

Some young people in cities have tendencies towards graffiti and vandalism.


Corruption = the crime when an official breaks laws to help people that he knows

Corruption is widespread in the police in some developing countries.


Bribery = the crime of giving money to officials to get something done (verb = to bribe someone)

I had to bribe a customs inspector to get my luggage through the airport.


To enforce laws = to apply them to people

The police are not enforcing the laws about dropping litter in public. They should arrest more people for this.


Unequitable = unfair or different for different groups

It is unequitable to arrest young people for speeding, but not older people.


Law-abiding = following all the laws in a proper way

I am a law-abiding citizen. I never break the speed limit or any other laws.


Transferable skills = skills that can be used in different situations

I have transferable skills which I use in both my professional career and my fund-raising work for charities.


Lateral thinking = the ability to think creatively and in new ways

Facebook and Google are great examples of companies that have grown on lateral thinking.


Investigative = adjective from ‘to investigate’ = to enquire about the causes of a crime or a problem

The police refused to investigate the Prime Minister, leading to accusations of corruption.


To transcend a situation = to be bigger or go beyond it

The need for reducing financial waste transcends the government – everybody should be spending money more carefully.


A context = a specific situation

Armed police evidently work well in the American context, but would be less effective in a British context.


To outweigh = to be more important than

The advantages of having a diesel car outweigh the costs.


Over-familiarity = when an official is too friendly with the public

We should discourage over-familiarity between judges and lawyers, because it could lead to corruption.







Some observers say that police officers should be recruited from the communities where they work, so that they have local knowledge. Other people say that this is unnecessary, or even undesirable. Where do you stand on this debate? Is local knowledge essential in modern policing?








Band 9 model essay


The need for effective, trustworthy police officers is paramount in society today, especially as criminals become more devious and creative. Regarding whether police should be locally hired, there is a case to be made on both sides of the debate.


Those who support local recruitment of officers point to the need for the police to understand the minutiae of the local community. For example, a community may have certain frictions or a history of a specific grievance, whether religious, political or otherwise. In such situations, the argument goes, the police need to show sensitivity, and also be able to anticipate the kinds of crimes that may be committed. Furthermore, local officers may find it easier to gain informants in the community, leading to stronger evidence at trials, higher conviction rates and a deterrent to crime through sentencing, imprisonment, fines or community service leading to rehabilitation of the offender.


On the other hand, it seems likely that officers from the community may in fact share some of the tendencies of the people they grew up with. For example, in countries such as Mexico, we see a high incidence of corruption among the local business and government community which is equalled by bribery among the police. A second objection is that local sensitivity may lead to the police failing to enforce laws fully, and effectively making exceptions for some offenders, which is unequitable towards law-abiding citizens. Finally, we must remember that police officers should have transferable skills, such as lateral thinking and investigative ability, which should transcend their background or the environment they are working in.


Overall, it seems to me that local knowledge is not absolutely essential for the police, whose skills should be effective in any context. Indeed, I agree with those who say that the risks of local recruitment outweigh the benefits, because of the danger of corruption and over-familiarity with potential offenders.

Comments